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Football player wearing helmet.

concussion is a mild traumatic brain injury caused by a direct blow to the head, face, or neck. In the United States, an estimated 300,000 sports-related concussions occur annually.

In high school gender-comparable sports, girls have a higher concussion rate than boys. Female athletes have also been shown to have a greater recovery time in postconcussion symptoms as compared to males.

Signs of a Concussion

Concussion symptoms usually appear within minutes of the injury, but some symptoms may take several hours to occur. Any athlete who has lost consciousness during a sports-related impact should be examined for a concussion or a spine injury.

A headache is the most common complaint of an athlete with a concussion. If you suspect your child has suffered a concussion, they may exhibit the following symptoms, which could worsen with stress or activity:

  • Loss of consciousness
  • Headache
  • Feeling in a "fog"
  • Difficulty remembering
  • Behavioral changes (irritability, rapid changes in mood, exaggerated emotions, aggressiveness, depression, decreased tolerance to stress, etc)
  • Nausea/vomiting
  • Difficulty with balance
  • Pupils that are enlarged or not equal in size
  • Double or blurred vision
  • Slurred speech
  • Difficulty falling asleep
  • Excessive drowsiness

What to Do If you Suspect a Concussion 

  • Do not allow the athlete to return to any sporting event. 
  • The athlete should be allowed to rest until there is a resolution of symptoms. This allows the brain to recover. Rest involves allowing time to sleep or take frequent naps. It is important to minimize distractions, such as television, Internet, reading, or phone use.  
  • It is not necessary to wake the athlete up every hour. This disturbs sleep patterns, which can interfere with the healing process of the brain.
  • The athlete should avoid pain relievers, like aspirin or other anti-inflammatory medicines. These may increase the risk of bleeding in the brain.
  • The athlete should not be left alone after the injury. Symptoms should be monitored closely. If they worsen, the athlete may need to be evaluated in the emergency room to determine if a more serious brain injury exists.     

A physical therapist can assess symptoms to determine if a concussion is present, and treat your injury by guiding you through a safe and personalized recovery program.

Physical therapists are movement experts who improve quality of life through hands-on care, patient education, and prescribed movement. You can contact a physical therapist directly for an evaluation. To locate a physical therapist in your area, visit Find a PT.

Find a PT Near You!


Related Resources

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McCrory P, Meeuwisse WH, Aubry M, et al. Consensus statement on concussion in sport: the 4th international conference on concussion in sport held in Zurich, November 2012. Br J Sports Med. 2013;47:250–258.

Covassin T, Schatz P, Swanik CB. Sex differences in neuropsychological function and post-concussion symptoms of concussed collegiate athletes. Neurosurgery. 2007;61(2):345–351.

Gessel LM, Fields SK, Collins CL, Dick RW, Comstock RD. Concussions among United States high school and collegiate athletes. J Athl Train. 2007;42(4):495–503.

Broshek DK, Kaushik T, Freeman JR, Erlanger D, Webbe F, Barth JT. Sex differences in outcome following sports-related concussion. J Neurosurg. 2005;102(5):856–863.

Farace E, Alves WM. Do women fare worse: a meta-analysis of gender differences in traumatic brain injury outcome. J Neurosurg. 2000;93(4):539–545.

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